RIDGE HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM

WATER FLOWING INTO HOT FRACTURED BASALTIC CRUST REACTS TO FORM MINERALS AND CHANGES CHEMISTRY OF SEA WATER

 

HOT (350 C) MINERAL-RICH WATER DISCHARGES AT VENTS CALLED BLACK SMOKERS AND FORMS MINERAL DEPOSITS RICH IN ZINC, COPPER, AND IRON

 

BLACK SMOKERS FORM HUGE CHIMNEY STRUCTURES