STUDYING OCEANIC RIDGE-TRANSFORM SYSYTEMS

-MOST STUDIES USE SURFACE SHIP MEASUREMENTS OF GRAVITY, MAGNETICS, AND HIGH-RESOLUTION SONAR (SOUND WAVE) MAPPING

-OTHER MEASUREMENTS MADE WITH DEEP-SEA DRILLING

-SEISMOLOGY USED TO STUDY EARTHQUAKES AND CRUSTAL STRUCTURE

-DETAILED STUDIES USE MANNED AND ROBOTIC SUBMERSIBLES (SUBMARINES) THAT CAN SAMPLE ROCKS AND FLUIDS AND TAKE PHOTOS

-IN PLACES, OCEANIC CRUST (OPHIOLITES) IS EXPOSED ON LAND AND IS STUDIED THERE